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Leading paediatrician Professor David Southall was been found guilty of serious professional misconduct after accusing solicitor Sally Clark's husband of murdering their children.
The General Medical Council has said the doctor can continue to practise, but has said he cannot work in child protection.
But its decision not to remove the paediatrician from the medical register has been challenged by the Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence, which oversees the work of regulatory bodies such as the GMC.
A High Court judge is to rule whether the GMC acted correctly.
Professor Southall provokes strong reactions.
Some - like Steve and Sally Clark - believe he should be removed from the medical register.
During the GMC hearing, Richard Tyson, counsel for Mr Clark said Professor Southall was an arrogant, dogmatic and "very dangerous doctor" who did not deserve his place in the medical profession.
But many child health experts laud him for his pioneering research into Munchausen's syndrome by proxy, in which adults induce or fabricate illnesses in their children.
He is also credited with important research into cot death, which over-turned findings that the problem was due to the gaps in babies' breathing while they sleep.
The GMC hearing also heard testimonials from 85 people including surgeons, nurses, social workers and a judge, who praised Professor Southall's work, and who said they believed he should be bale to continue working.